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Sexual health

Sexual and reproductive health

This resource has been developed for nurses working in sexual and reproductive health. This encompasses sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, contraception, teenage pregnancy and reproduction. 

There are a number of other RCN resources available to support nurses working in this area. 

The RCN's Public Health Forum and the Women’s Health Forum lead the RCN’s work in these areas. Further information can also be found on the RCN’s Fertility Nursing Forum, Midwifery Forum and Nursing in Justice and Forensic Healthcare pages.

Sexual and reproductive health is an fundamental public health issue and clearly recognised as such by the WHO (2015). Sexual and reproductive health provision includes the provision of contraceptive methods such as implants, intrauterine devices and hormonal contraception and the diagnosis, treatment, management of sexually transmitted infection, HIV care and the public health role of partner notification and promotion of safer sex and including support for individuals in relation to sexuality and healthy sexual relationships. The role of nurses, midwives and health practitioners across sexual and reproductive health are essential to the delivery of high quality care, to support males, females, trans and intersex people who may be vulnerable through unprotected or condom less sex including: sex workers; homeless people; as well as victims of sexual assault, domestic violence and grooming. 

Alongside providing advice and support to members, the RCN works closely with charities and professional organisations such as the Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH), Terence Higgins Trust, NICE, British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and the UK governments to ensure that nurses play a key part in the development of services and standards across the UK.

Nurses, midwives and health practitioners may be employed by the NHS, independent sector, universities or charities in a variety of roles such as sexual and reproductive health technicians, staff nurses, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, community nurses, lectures and consultant nurses.

Current issues and concerns

420,00 cases on STI’s diagnosed in 2017

On Tuesday 5th June 2018 Public Health England released the number of diagnosed sexually transmitted infections in 2017.

Key statistics:

  • In 2017 there were approximately 422,000 diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections made in England, around the same number that was reported in England.
  • There were 7,137 diagnoses of syphilis reported in 2017, a 20% increase (from 5,955) relative to the year prior and a 148% increase relative to 2008.
  • There were 44,676 diagnoses of gonorrhoea reported in 2017, a 22% increase relative to the year prior.
  • There were 441 diagnoses of first episode genital warts in 15 to 17 year old girls in 2017, a 90% decrease relative to 2009 and an early expression of success of the nation HPV immunisation programme.
  • Over 1.3 million chlamydia tests were carried out and over 126,000 chlamydia diagnoses were made among young people aged 15 – 24 years. There was an 8 % decline in the number of chlamydia tests in 2017 compared to 2016.
  • Overall the impact of STI’s remain greatest in young heterosexuals aged 15 – 24 years, black ethnic minorities and gay, bisexual and other MSM. 

To support sexual health services and work to reduce STI transmission PHE is undertaking work to raise awareness of STI’s in the 16 to 24 year old age group, providing data to local authorities on local service activity and is developing a syphilis action plan. See: New data reveals 420,000 cases of STIs diagnosed in 2017

This identifies further concerns as highlighted in the recent RCN report: Sexual and Reproductive Health. RCN report on the impact of funding and service changes in England (2018). This report includes a number of recommendations for the future of sexual and reproductive health that focus on workforce, education and training, a national website resource for nurses, new ways of working and online service provision and public health spending.

Sexual health charities

Across the UK there are a number of charities that provide information, advice and support for patients and healthcare professionals:
 
  • British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS). Information and advice on termination of pregnancy and contraception alongside clinical services
  • Brook. Sexual health information, advice and clinics for young people
  • Fpa. (Formerly Family Planning Association) Information and advice on sexual health and contraception
  • Marie Stopes International. Information and advice on termination of pregnancy and contraception alongside clinical services
  • Terence Higgins Trust. National charity for sexual health and HIV.  Provides advice, information and a number of face to face services
  • Aidsmap. Information and resources on HIV within the UK and across the world.

Resources 

RCN Publications

Further RCN resources

The RCN has been working with members on a series of case studies which help showcase the variety of ways nurses are currently working to improve public health. See: Improving access to sexual health 

You may also find the following RCN resources useful: