Delirium is a state of heightened mental confusion that commonly affects older people admitted to hospital. Ninety six percent of cases are experienced by older people. When older people with dementia experience severe illness or trauma such as a hip fracture they are more at risk of delirium.
Delirium causes great distress to patients, families and carers and has potentially serious consequences such as increased likelihood of admission to long term care and increased mortality.
People who have delirium may need to stay longer in hospital or in critical care; have an increased incidence of dementia and have more hospital-acquired complications such as falls and pressure ulcers.
Identifying delirium is an important priority as approximately half of all delirium episodes are potentially reversible. (Healthcare Improvement Scotland, 2013)
Five principles for improving the quality of care for patients with dementia and enabling the best possible support for their carers.
Alonso, R (2014) Delirium: Diagnosis, management and prevention, In Psychiatry - Theory, Applications and Treatments. New York: Novinka.
Page, V (2011) Delirium in critical care, Cambridge University Press.
Healthcare Improvement Scotland. Improving the care for older people: Delirium toolkit (2014) A range of tools and resources for healthcare professionals to help improve the identification and immediate management of delirium in clinical settings.
Healthcare Improvement Scotland. Delirium experience of patients families and staff report (2013) Includes details of a project to explore staff, patients’ and families’ experience of episodes of delirium in an acute hospital setting.
HSC Public Health Agency. Delirium - information for patients and relatives (2016) This leaflet describes the causes and symptoms of delirium for patients and relatives.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Delirium: Diagnosis, prevention and management (2010) Advice that covers the care of adults with, or at risk of, delirium in hospital and in long-term residential care or a nursing home.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Quality standard (2014) Delirium. Looks at the prevention, diagnosis and management of delirium in adults in hospital or long-term care settings.
NHS England. Dementia Revealed: What primary care needs to know - a primer for general practice (2014) A toolkit that looks at aspects of dementia, including delirium.