These resources provide evidence and research findings around nursing staffing levels.
Zaranko B, Sanford N J, Kelly E, Rafferty A M, Bird J, Mercuri L, Sigsworth J, Wells M and Propper C (2022) Nurse staffing and inpatient mortality in the English National Health Service: a retrospective longitudinal study, BMJ Quality & Safety. doi.org/10.1136/bmjqs-2022-015291.
McHugh M D, Aiken L H, Sloane D M, Windsor C, Douglas C and Yates P (2021) Effects of nurse-to-patient ratio legislation on nurse staffing and patient mortality, readmissions, and length of stay: a prospective study in a panel of hospitals, The Lancet, 397(10288), pp. 1905–1913.
Senek M, Robertson S, Ryan T, Sworn K, King R, Wood E and Tod A (2020) Nursing care left undone in community settings: results from a UK cross‐sectional survey, Journal of Nursing Management, 28(8), pp. 1968–1974.
The project was funded by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) as part of the Strategic Research Alliance (SRA) between the RCN and the University of Sheffield.
Sworn K and Booth A (2020) A systematic review of the impact of ‘missed care’ in primary, community and nursing home settings, Journal of Nursing Management, 28(8), pp. 1805–1829.
The project was funded by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) as part of the Strategic Research Alliance between the RCN and the University of Sheffield
Emmanuel T, Dall’Ora C, Ewings S and Griffiths P (2020) Are long shifts, overtime and staffing levels associated with nurses’ opportunity for educational activities, communication and continuity of care assignments? A cross-sectional study, International Journal of Nursing Studies Advances. p. 100002.
Clemens S, Wodchis W, McGilton K, McGrail K and McMahon M (2021) The relationship between quality and staffing in long-term care: A systematic review of the literature 2008–2020, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 122, 104036.
Griffiths P, Saville C, Ball J, Jones J, Pattison N and Monks T (2020) Nursing workload, nurse staffing methodologies and tools: A systematic scoping review and discussion. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 103, p. 103487
Musy S N, Endrich O, Leichtle A B, Griffiths P, Nakas C T and Simon M (2021) The association between nurse staffing and inpatient mortality: A shift-level retrospective longitudinal study, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 12, 103950.
Griffiths P, Saville C, Ball J, Culliford D, Pattison N and Monks T (2020) Performance of the Safer Nursing Care Tool to measure nurse staffing requirements in acute hospitals: a multicentre observational study, BMJ Open, 10(5), p. e035828.
Griffiths P, Maruotti A, Recio Saucedo A, Redfern O C, Ball J E, Briggs J, Dall’Ora C, Schmidt P E, Smith G B and Missed Care Study Group (2019) Nurse staffing, nursing assistants and hospital mortality: retrospective longitudinal cohort study, BMJ Quality and Safety, 28(8), pp. 609–617.
Saville C E, Griffiths P, Ball J E and Monks T (2019) How many nurses do we need? A review and discussion of operational research techniques applied to nurse staffing, International Journal of Nursing Studies. pp. 7–13.
Aiken LH, Sloane DM, Ball J, Bruyneel L, Rafferty AM, Griffiths P (2018) Patient satisfaction with hospital care and nurses in England: an observational study, BMJ Open, 8.
Ball JE, Bruyneel L, Aiken LH and others (2017) Post-operative mortality, missed care and nurse staffing in nine countries: a cross-sectional study, International Journal of Nursing Studies.
Ball JE (2017) Nurse staffing levels, care left undone and patient mortality in acute hospitals, PhD thesis, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinksa Institutet.
Aiken LH, Sloane D, Griffiths P and others (2016) Nursing skill mix in European hospitals: cross-sectional study of the association with mortality, patient ratings, and quality of care, BMJ Quality and Safety, Published online first: 15 November 2016.
Griffiths P, Ball J, Drennan J, Dall’ora C, Jones J, Maruotti A, Pope C, Recio Saucedo A and Simon M (2016) Nurse staffing and patient outcomes: strengths and limitations of the evidence to inform policy and practice. A review and discussion paper based on evidence reviewed for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence safe staffing guideline development, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 63, pp. 213–225.
Griffiths P, Ball J, Murrells T, Jones S and Rafferty A (2016) Registered nurse, healthcare support worker, medical staffing levels and mortality in English hospital trusts: a cross-sectional study, BMJ Open, 6.
Aiken LH, Sloane DM, Bruyneel L, van dH, Griffiths P, Busse R and others (2014) Nurse staffing and education and hospital mortality in nine European countries: a retrospective observational study, Lancet, 383 (9931), pp.1824-30.
Ball JE, Murrells T, Rafferty AM, Morrow E and Griffiths P (2014) 'Care left undone’ during nursing shifts: associations with workload and perceived quality of care, BMJ Quality and Safety, 23, pp.116-125.
Barton N (2013) Acuity-based staffing: balance cost, satisfaction, quality, and outcomes, Nurse Leader, 11(6), pp. 47-50, 64.
North N, Leung W, Ashton T, Rasmussen E, Hughes F and Finlayson M (2013) Nurse turnover in New Zealand: costs and relationships with staffing practises and patient outcomes, Journal of Nursing Management, 21(3), pp.419-428.
Hurst K and Smith A (2011) Temporary nursing staff: cost and quality issues, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(2), pp.287-296.
Needleman J, Buerhaus P, Pankratz VS, Leibson CL, Stevens SR and Harris M (2011) Nurse staffing and inpatient hospital mortality, New England Journal of Medicine, 364 (11), pp.1037-1045.
Dall TM, Chen YK, Seifert RF, Maddox, PJ and Hogan PF (2009) The economic value of professional nursing, Medical Care, 47(1), pp.97-104.
Newbold D (2008) The production economics of nursing: a discussion paper, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45(1), pp.120-128.
Unruh L (2008) Nurse staffing and patient, nurse, and financial outcomes, American Journal of Nursing, 108(1), pp.62-72
Kane RL, Shamliyan TA, Mueller C, Duval S, and Wilt TJ (2007) The association of registered nurse staffing levels and patient outcomes: Systematic review and meta-analysis, Medical Care, 45 (12), pp.1195-1204.
Rafferty AM, Clarke SP, Coles J, Ball J, James P, McKee M and Aiken LH (2007) Outcomes of variation in hospital nurse staffing in English hospitals: cross-sectional analysis of survey data and discharge records, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44 (2), pp.175-182.
Needleman J, Buerhaus, PI, Stewart M Zelevinsky K and Mattke S (2006) Nurse staffing in hospitals: is there a business case for quality? Health Affairs, 25(1), pp.204-211.
Pearson A, Pallas, L O, Thomson D, Doucette E, Tucker D, Wiechula R, Long L, Porrit, K and Jordan Z (2006) Systematic review of evidence on the impact of nursing workload and staffing on establishing healthy work environments, International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 4, pp.337–384.
Spetz J (2005) The cost and cost-effectiveness of nursing services in health care. Nursing Outlook, 53(6), pp.305-309.
Cho S, Ketefian S, Barkauskas VH, and Smith DG (2003) The effects of nurse staffing on adverse events, morbidity, mortality, and medical costs, Nursing Research, 52(2), pp.71-79.
Aiken LH, Clarke SP, Sloane DM, Sochalski J and Silber JH (2002) Hospital nurse staffing and patient mortality, nurse burnout, and job dissatisfaction, JAMA, 288 (16) pp.1987-1993.
Needleman J, Buerhaus P, Mattke S, Stewart M and Zelevinsky K (2002) Nurse-staffing levels and the quality of care in hospitals, New England Journal of Medicine, 346 (22), pp.1715-1722.