Better housing and living conditions, alongside improved access to health care and vaccination during the 20th century has led to a significant reduction in infectious diseases.
Today it is non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes and respiratory conditions that are of increasing concern. The underlying causes of ill health are often attributable to unhealthy lifestyles, namely smoking, obesity and alcohol consumption. These are also associated with social inequalities. This is primarily deprivation but other factors play a part such as education or social habits.
Public health refers to all organised measures (whether public or private) to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole.’(WHO).
The RCN believes that nursing should be at the heart of minimising the impact of illness, promoting health and helping people to function at home, work, and leisure. Improving public health should be seen as part of all nursing and midwifery roles. The RCN report: Nurses 4 public health. The value and contribution of nursing to public health in the UK: Final report (2016) looks at the value and contribution of nurses to public health in the UK.
The RCN has been working with the members on a series of case studies which help showcase the variety of ways nurses are currently working to improve public health. See: Nurses for public health.
Nursing staff work in almost every stage and setting of care, as such they have an important role across a wide range of public health interventions. The Framework for personalised care and population health has been developed across the UK to help support this.
The revised Public Health Skills and Knowledge Framework has now been published. The Framework sets out the core skills and knowledge for all those working in public health. Its accompanied by a helpful guide, setting out how it can be used by individuals, employers and educational providers working in public health.