Womens health: termination of pregnancy
The RCN aims to support its members in providing the very highest standards of compassionate care possible for women who choose to have a termination of pregnancy, and are committed to providing considerate/empathetic support to those nurses, midwives and healthcare assistants who work to provide safe and quality care.
Whether pregnancy is planned or unplanned, the RCN believes that every woman should have the right to choose how to deal with this life event, within current legislation. The RCN believes that termination of pregnancy and contraception are necessary and integral to the provision of a comprehensive sexual and reproductive healthcare service, and support the current legislation. See: RCN Termination of Pregnancy (Induced Abortion) position statement.
We equally acknowledge and respect those nurses, midwives and healthcare assistants who have a conscientious objection within current legislation.
The original Abortion Act was 50 years old in 2017, this has led to considerable discussion about the legislation, which was updated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 amended 2008, and which excludes Northern Ireland.
It is recognised that there are differing points of view on the issues surrounding Termination of Pregnancy (the preferred term agreed by DH some years ago, however abortion remains a commonly used term). In the midst of these debates are women, men, nurses, midwives and healthcare assistants who are involved in termination of pregnancy, and /or who have varying views on the subject.
The decriminalisation of abortion is the current debate taking place across the UK, It rests on the ideal that society has moved forward in 50 years, and there is no longer a requirement for this ‘medical condition’ to be enshrined in a legislative framework, that some consider to be outdated and inappropriate.
The British Medical Association (BMA) published a detailed report in February 2017, which provides a comprehensive overview of the various arguments for and against, but did not change its position. The BMA conference in June 2017 saw a call by some doctors for the BMA to change its position – links below for further details.
In October 2017, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) released a statement lending their support to the campaign with parameters similar to the BMA, including the need for:
- regulation and professional standards and ongoing quality monitoring
- requirement for conscientious objection to be maintained
- to maintain viability limits to remain.
The Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Health (FSRH) published a statement outlining its support in November 2017.
In May 2018, the RCN published its member response to a consultation of the full membership, see: Decriminalisation of Termination of Pregnancy. RCN Membership Response.
In December 2018, the RCN published their position statement on decriminalisation. See: Decriminalisation of Termination of Pregnancy Position statement.
Advanced Nursing Skills
There is also a consideration and ongoing discussion about the need to extend nursing skills in care (this is partly driven by the lack of medical staff available to perform Termination of Pregnancy and related to a recognition that this is an area for advanced nursing care to expand). A recent publication by Sheldon & Fletcher outlines the advantages of this move, and the NNP meeting agreed that RCN would support advanced practice if the individual was adequately skilled, however this needs further work. It would also require a change to current legislation. The RCN is currently in discussions with FSRH about advancing nursing skills to support quality care.
In 2022, the RCOG has an Abortion Care eResource, where there are eight eTutorials available to help health workers, healthcare students and clinical educators gain practical and applicable knowledge about safe abortion care across global contexts.
Nursing Education and Development
In 2020, RCN is committed to supporting best practice, and with a view to considering how we can best support nursing practice and leadership in TOP service provision. We have now published the results of a survey to consider the educational standards of nurses, midwives and healthcare assistants working across direct and indirect services where woman are cared for. Our report RCN Nursing Education in Termination of Pregnancy Services identifies the current range of education qualifications and the considers a career pathway and further educational needs in the service.
Further RCN resources
- Clinical Nurse Specialists in Early Pregnancy Care Consensus Statement (2023). This publication details further work following the impact assessment and subsequent report of the RCN’s Clinical Nurse Specialists in Early Pregnancy Care Standards in 2021.
- Clinical Nurse Specialist Standards in Early Pregnancy Care Impact Assessment Report (2021). This report details the findings of a survey conducted in 2020 to ascertain the impact and usefulness of the Clinical Nurse Specialist in Early Pregnancy Care publication.
- Termination of Pregnancy (Induced Abortion) (2013). Position statement from the RCN on termination of pregnancy (Induced Abortion).
- RCN member briefing paper on decriminalisation of termination of pregnancy (2018). The RCN launched a UK-wide survey of its members on the principle of removing criminal sanctions from termination of pregnancy. This is commonly known as decriminalisation of abortion. This briefing paper provides some background to the debate around decriminalisation and will help you to answer the survey.
- Decriminalisation of Termination of Pregnancy. RCN Membership Response (2018). In March 2018, the RCN launched a UK-wide survey of members on the principle of removing criminal sanctions from termination of pregnancy (commonly referred to as decriminalisation of abortion). The consultation focused solely on the principle of decriminalisation of termination of pregnancy. This publication outlines RCN members’ response.
- Decriminalisation of Termination of Pregnancy Position statement (December 2018). The RCN's position statement on the decriminalisation of the termination of pregnancy.
- GOV UK. Abortion Act 1967
- GOV UK. Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 amended 2008
- RCOG. Parliament votes to make telemedicine for early medical abortion permanent in England (March 2022)
- Sexual Health Scotland. Abortion Care in Scotland (2023)
- Welsh Government. Written Statement: Arrangements for Early Medical Abortion at Home
On 30 March 2020 the Government has approved temporarily (In England) telemedicine for abortion consultations and home use of mifepristone, the first course of early medical abortion treatment. For more information, see: Temporary approval of home use for both stages of early medical abortion
In March 2020, Northern Ireland enacted new legislation and guidelines, see: A new legal framework for abortion services in Northern Ireland
Advanced nursing skills
Sally Sheldon, Joanne Fletcher (2017) Vacuum aspiration for induced abortion could be safely and legally performed by nurses and midwives. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 2017;0:1–5. doi:10.1136/jfprhc-2016-101542
Aiken, Lohr, Lord, Ghosh, & Starling (2021). Effectiveness, safety and acceptability of no-test medical abortion (termination of pregnancy) provided via telemedicine: a national cohort study. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
British Medical Association (BMA). How will abortion be regulated in the United Kingdom if the criminal sanctions for abortion are removed?
Commons Women and Equality Committee (2019). Abortion law in Northern Ireland: Government response to the Committee’s Eighth Report of Session 2017–19
Department of Health and Social Care (2019) Abortion: further clarification of time limit
FSRH & RCOG statement (2022). FSRH and RCOG welcome the Welsh Government’s decision to permanently allow telemedicine for early abortion care
NICE quality standard (2021) Abortion care. This quality standard covers care for women of any age who request an abortion. It describes high-quality care in priority areas for improvement
NICE guideline (2019) Abortion care. This guideline covers care for women of any age (including girls and young women under 18) who request an abortion
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection and abortion care. This guidance contains a table at the beginning that summarises updates.
SACHA project (2023) The SACHA Study - Shaping Abortion for Change
World Health Organization (2018). Medical management of abortion
World Health Organization (2022). Abortion care guidelines
Key RCN resources
Termination of Pregnancy and Abortion Care (2024). This updated guidance incorporates expert and evidence-based practice. It has been produced to support registered nurses and midwives working within the NHS and independent sectors, across the UK. It considers the legislative frameworks in place across the UK, alongside clinical guidance for those working in termination of pregnancy services.
Clinical Nurse Specialist in Early Pregnancy Care (2021). This document outlines the key skills and knowledge required to develop the role of this specialist nurse/midwife.
Managing the disposal of pregnancy remains (2021). This publication is intended to provide clear guidance to ensure the safe and appropriate disposal of pregnancy remains.
RCN guidance on conscientious objection
Legislation in the UK recognises that health care workers may have religious, moral or personal objections to termination of pregnancy (TOP). This publication provides guidance on the issue of Conscientious Objection for nurses, midwives and nursing associates.
Page last updated - 31/01/2024